Local Cluster

Skaffold supports fast deployments to supported locally-hosted clusters, such as minikube and Docker Desktop, by loading images directly into the cluster. Loading images is typically much faster than the roundtrip required to push an image to a remote registry and then for the cluster to pull that image again.

Auto detection

Skaffold’s heuristic to detect local clusters is based on the Kubernetes context name set on kubectl. You can find your the current context name by running:

kubectl config current-context

Skaffold checks for the following context names:

Kubernetes context Local cluster type Notes
docker-desktop Docker Desktop
docker-for-desktop Docker Desktop This context name is deprecated
minikube 1 minikube See 1
kind-(.*) kind This pattern is used by kind >= v0.6.0
(.*)@kind kind This pattern was used by kind < v0.6.0
k3d-(.*) k3d This pattern is used by k3d >= v3.0.0

For any other name, Skaffold assumes that the cluster is remote and that images have to be pushed.

1 Additionally, a Kubernetes context may be considered as minikube even if it’s not named minikube but it’s cluster certificate is stored at $HOME/.minikube or the minikube profile list command returns the Kubernetes context name.

Manual override

For non-standard local setups, such as a custom minikube profile, some extra configuration is necessary. The essential steps are:

  1. Ensure that Skaffold builds the images with the same docker daemon that runs the pods’ containers.

  2. Tell Skaffold to skip pushing images either by configuring

    build:
      local:
        push: false
    

    or by marking a Kubernetes context as local (see the following example).

For example, when running minikube with a custom profile (e.g. minikube start -p my-profile):

  1. Set up the docker environment for Skaffold with source <(minikube docker-env -p my-profile). This should set some environment variables for docker (check with env | grep DOCKER). It is important to do this in the same shell where Skaffold is executed.

  2. Tell Skaffold that the Kubernetes context my-profile refers to a local cluster with

    skaffold config set --kube-context my-profile local-cluster true
    

Caveats

There are some caveats to note with local clusters.

Minikube has a separate Docker Daemon

Minikube has a separate Docker daemon that runs inside the minikube virtual machine, which is independent of the Docker installation that may be running on the host. Skaffold automatically uses minikube docker-env to configure image builders to use this internal Docker daemon as it results in a dramatic speed-up as compared to other approaches.

The use of minikube’s internal daemon does means that images are not available from the host’s daemon:

# build the image `skaffold-example`
$ skaffold build
...
Starting build...
Found [minikube] context, using local docker daemon.
...
Successfully tagged skaffold-example:v1.35.0-37-g7ccebe58e
Build [skaffold-example] succeeded

# but the image is not found in the host docker!
$ docker images skaffold-example
REPOSITORY   TAG       IMAGE ID   CREATED   SIZE

You must instead configure the Docker CLI to use the Minikube daemon:

$ minikube docker-env
export DOCKER_HOST="tcp://127.0.0.1:54168"
...
$ eval $(minikube docker-env) && docker images skaffold-example
REPOSITORY         TAG                                                                IMAGE ID       CREATED       SIZE
skaffold-example   160fe3a3c1358ef7b3fbfd1ae19fc8c5ac096635c39171e22ad1e5242b6ad8fd   160fe3a3c135   3 weeks ago   7.43MB
skaffold-example   v1.35.0-37-g7ccebe58e                                              160fe3a3c135   3 weeks ago   7.43MB

Minikube also offers a set of helper commands to manage images through minikube image.

Impacts of imagePullPolicy

Skaffold’s direct loading of images into a local cluster does mean that resources specifying an imagePullPolicy: Always may fail as the images are not be pushed to the remote registry.

Last modified September 21, 2022: release: v2.0.0-beta3 (#7878) (cd96e81)