Skaffold offers several sub-commands for its workflows that make it quite flexible when integrating with CI/CD pipelines.
skaffold run is a single command for a one-off deployment. It includes all the following phases as it builds, tags, deploys and waits for the deployment to succeed if specified.
skaffold run for a simple Continuous Delivery setup, where it is sufficient to have a single step that deploys from version control to a cluster.
For more sophisticated Continuous Delivery pipelines, Skaffold offers building blocks that are described next:
- healthcheck -
deploymentsto stabilize and succeed only if all deployments are successful
skaffold build- build, tag and push artifacts to a registry
skaffold deploy- deploy built artifacts to a cluster
skaffold render- export the transformed Kubernetes manifests for GitOps workflows
Waiting for Skaffold deployments using
skaffold deploy optionally performs a
healthcheck for resources of kind
Deployment and waits for them to be stable.
This feature can be very useful in Continuous Delivery pipelines to ensure that the deployed resources are
healthy before proceeding with the next steps in the pipeline.
healthcheckis enabled by default; it can be disabled with the
To determine if a
Deployment resource is up and running, Skaffold relies on
kubectl rollout status to obtain its status.
Waiting for deployments to stabilize - default:deployment/leeroy-app Waiting for rollout to finish: 0 of 1 updated replicas are available... - default:deployment/leeroy-web Waiting for rollout to finish: 0 of 1 updated replicas are available... - default:deployment/leeroy-web is ready. [1/2 deployment(s) still pending] - default:deployment/leeroy-app is ready. Deployments stabilized in 2.168799605s
Configuring status check time for deploy
You can also configure the time for deployments to stabilize with the
statusCheckDeadlineSeconds config field in the
For example, to configure deployments to stabilize within 5 minutes:
deploy: statusCheckDeadlineSeconds: 300 kubectl: manifests: - k8s-*
--status-check flag, for each
skaffold deploy will wait for
the time specified by
from the deployment configuration.
Deployment.spec.progressDeadlineSeconds is not set, Skaffold will either wait for
the time specified in the
statusCheckDeadlineSeconds field of the deployment config stanza in the
default to 10 minutes if this is not specified.
In the case that both
Deployment.spec.progressDeadlineSeconds are set, precedence
is given to
Deployment.spec.progressDeadline only if it is less than
For example, the
Deployment below with
progressDeadlineSeconds set to 5 minutes,
apiVersion: apps/v1 kind: Deployment metadata: name: getting-started spec: progressDeadlineSeconds: 300 template: spec: containers: - name: cannot-run image: gcr.io/k8s-skaffold/getting-started-foo
skaffold.yaml overrides the deadline to make sure deployment stabilizes in a 60 seconds,
apiVersion: skaffold/v1 deploy: statusCheckDeadlineSeconds: 60 kubectl: manifests: - k8s-*
skaffold deploy --status-check
will result in an error after waiting for 1 minute:
Tags used in deployment: Starting deploy... kubectl client version: 1.11+ kubectl version 1.12.0 or greater is recommended for use with Skaffold - deployment.apps/getting-started created Waiting for deployments to stabilize - default:deployment/getting-started Waiting for rollout to finish: 0 of 1 updated replicas are available... - default:deployment/getting-started failed. Error: received Ctrl-C or deployments could not stabilize within 1m: kubectl rollout status command interrupted. FATA 1/1 deployment(s) failed
skaffold build | skaffold deploy
skaffold build will build your project’s artifacts, and push the build images to the specified registry. If your project is already configured to run with Skaffold,
skaffold build can be a very lightweight way of setting up builds for your CI pipeline. Passing the
--file-output flag to Skaffold build will also write out your built artifacts in JSON format to a file on disk, which can then by passed to
skaffold deploy later on. This is a great way of “committing” your artifacts when they have reached a state that you’re comfortable with, especially for projects with multiple artifacts for multiple services.
Example using the current git state as a unique file ID to “commit” build state:
Storing the build result in a commit specific JSON file:
export STATE=$(git rev-list -1 HEAD --abbrev-commit) skaffold build --file-output build-$STATE.json
outputs the tag generation and cache output from Skaffold:
Generating tags... - gcr.io/k8s-skaffold/skaffold-example:v0.41.0-17-g3ad238db Checking cache... - gcr.io/k8s-skaffold/skaffold-example: Found. Tagging
The content of the JSON file
We can then use this build result file to deploy with Skaffold:
skaffold deploy -a build-$STATE.json
and as we’d expect, we see a bit of deploy-related output from Skaffold:
Tags used in deployment: - gcr.io/k8s-skaffold/skaffold-example -> gcr.io/k8s-skaffold/skaffold-example:v0.41.0-17-g3ad238db@sha256:eeffb639f53368c4039b02a4d337bde44e3acc728b309a84353d4857ee95c369 Starting deploy... - pod/getting-started configured
Skaffold also has another built-in command,
skaffold render, that will perform builds on all artifacts in your project, template the newly built image tags into your Kubernetes deployment configuration files (based on your configured deployer), and instead of sending these through the deployment process, print out the final deployment artifacts. This allows you to snapshot your project’s builds, but also integrate those builds into your deployment configs to snapshot your deployment as well. This can be very useful when integrating with GitOps based workflows: these templated deployment configurations can be committed to a Git repository as a way to deploy using GitOps.
Example of running
skaffold render to render Kubernetes manifests, then sending them directly to
skaffold render --output render.txt && cat render.txt outputs:
apiVersion: v1 kind: Pod metadata: name: getting-started namespace: default spec: containers: - image: gcr.io/k8s-skaffold/skaffold-example:v0.41.0-57-gbee90013@sha256:eeffb639f53368c4039b02a4d337bde44e3acc728b309a84353d4857ee95c369 name: getting-started
We can then pipe this yaml to kubectl:
cat render.txt | kubectl apply -f -
Or, if we want to skip the file writing altogether:
skaffold render | kubectl apply -f -
gives us the one line output telling us the only thing we need to know: